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In this edition of the Clinical Journal of Mycology Vol V these are the articles that you will be able to find:

- Prof. Amin Karmali continued his work on the enzyme analysis of Mushrooms. In this article Prof. Karmali states the results gathered after comparing Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), Auricularia auricula and Poria cocos. The results shown in the tables relate to testing made with the mushrooms when in the presence or absence of Digestive enzymes.

- Chris Newton from the Centre for Immuno-metabolism discusses the possibility of mushroom nutrition as a way to compete with gliadin (part of gluten) for the Dectin-1 receptor. Beside this, the beta-glucans within the mushrooms will upregulate the process of autophagy which is essential to keep cell homeostasis in the gut and increase the food tolerance.

- Prof. Tito Fernandes, Prof. Ana Barros and Prof. Jorge Ferrão analysed the effects of supplementation with Coriolus versicolor in a sample of male and female rat. This article shows the conclusions they reached after monitoring the rats for 90 days.

- Prof. Vittorio Calabrese and collborators after writing articles on both Coriolus versicolor and Hericium erinaceus discuss on possibility of having both mushrooms working together to manage the development of Alzheimer's disease in its early stages.

- In the last article of the Journal researchers from diferente Universities discuss on the possibility of using the biomass of Coriolus versicolor as a prebiotic. To do this they mimicked the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and show the growth of bacterial species commonly presente in the human flora.

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In this issue, Prof. Amin Karmali compares in vitro the impact of proteolytic enzymes on the beta-glucan content, enzyme content and secondary metabolite content between a biomass form of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) versus an extracted form of Ganoderma lucidum. Various forms of Beta 1,3 -1,6 glucan activities are measured, such as water soluble fraction, hot water fraction, NaOH fraction, KOH fraction and HCI fraction. In terms of enzymes, measurements, super-oxide dismutase activity (SOD), peroxidase activity, Glucoamylase/Beta-glucanasase activity, Glucose 2-oxdase activity, Cytochrome “P-450”, Cytochrome P 450 reductase were taken in the absence of proteolytic enzymes and in the presence of proteolytic enzymes.

A copy of Professor Todor Chernev´s poster presentation entitled “Coriolus-MRL supplementation in patients infected with low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes - Bulgarian experience. The original poster presentation on the use of Coriolus-MRL in two separate studies (100 patients and 200 patients respectively) reinforces the original clinical work by Dr. Silva Couto in which Coriolus-MRL is a useful tool for gynecologists when working with HPV LSIL patients with High risk viral subtypes.

Presented is an English translation of a 2008 Bulgarian Medline article on Coriolus-MRL by Dr. Yuliyana Bogdanova (PhD) from the Bulgarian Institute of Botany, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, in Sofia, Bulgaria. The study outlines the clinical development of Coriolus-MRL.

Finally, Professor Vittorio Calabrese (University of Catania, Italy) and Professor Tito Fernandes (Scientific Director, University of Lurio, Mozambique) propose to use mushroom nutrition in Alzheimer´s patients. This two-part proposal is focused on the premise that the HSV1 virus could trigger the biochemical events that lead to the development of Alzheimer´s disease. The paper relies on work conducted by researchers working with Dr. Frank M. LaFerla at the at the department of Neurobiology and Behavior at the university of California Irvine, in Irvine California and to work conducted by researchers working with Professor Ruth Itzhaki in the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. As a first step, the proposed protocol seeks to verify that Coriolus-MRL when combined equally with Hericium-MRL can activate Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) activity which has been postulated as a novel approach to addressing the symptoms associated with Alzheimer´s disease. With confirmation that mushroom nutrition can activate LXA4 activity, then a small scale human study will be initiated.

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In this issue, Dr. Stoyan Borisov presents his clinical assessment study on the effect of Coriolus versicolor supplementation on patients with Low-risk and High-risk HPV subtypes. Dr. Chris Newton (Ph.D) proposes a study on the potential role of mushroom nutrition as modulators of toll receptor-mediated immune response.

The enzyme researcher, Dr. Amin Karmali (Ph.D) presents a detoxification analysis (in vitro) on mushroom nutrition, outlining the superoxide dismutase activity, cytochrome P450, cytochrome P450 reductase and secondary metabolites activity of Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Coriolus versicolor and Cordyceps sinensis.

Finally, the latest poster presentation on the efficacy of Coriolus versicolor in the treatment of HPV lesions (LSIL), presented by Dr. J.Silva Couto at the 14th World Congress of Cervical Pathology and Colpscopy- (IFCPC)-July 4th to 7th, 2011 in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

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In this issue two articles were submitted by a team of researchers based in the University of Catania (Italy) focused on the potential use of mushroom nutrition in neurodegenerative disease. The basis for hypothesis is due to the enzyme activity that offsets the reactive oxygen species associated with the onset of Parkinson’s, Alzheimer´s disease and ALS.

The articles are:
Mushroom Nutrition as a Target for Novel Therapeutic Strategies: Relevance to Nutritional Approaches and Antioxidant Redox Modulation in Ant-Ageing Medicine- Professor Vittorio Calabrese et al.

Comparative Enzyme Analysis of Polyporus umbellatus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurtous osteratus and Hericium erinaceus-Carolin Cornelius et al.

This issue closes with a poster presentation entitled:
Coriolus versicolor Supplementation as Immunonutrition in HPV Patients with Cervical Lesions (LSIL)-by Dr. Jose Silva Couto-Institute of Oncology, Coimbra Portugal.

The poster is an evaluation of the efficacy of Coriolus versicolor supplementation in patients infected with HPV with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). The article describes how Coriolus versicolor supplementation (3g /day) over a period of one year substantially increased regression of the dysplasia (LSIL) and induced clearance of the high risk sub-types of the HPV virus responsible for cervical cancer.

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In this edition, Dr Rajendra Sharma presents the results of 13 patient study on the use of Coriolus-MRL supplementation (4,5 g day over 90 days) in Leaky Gut Syndrome. Dr Jean Monro outlines a prospective trial design for HPV control with Coriolus versicolor. A prostate cancer case study is outlined in which the patient, Gary Bates, describes his experience taking Coriolus versicolor an Cordyceps sinensis supplementation while undergoing hormone blocking treatment. Dr Girao Bastos outlines the use of Coriolus supplementation in a dog with prostate cancer. The TCM lecturer, John Tindall, provides a protocol on the use of Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) in gout. Prof Amin Kamali provides an enzyme analysis of Agaricus blazei biomass which explains how the mushroom supports the immune system.

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In this edition, we address the hepato-protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis in liver damage and how Cordyceps could inhibit hepatic fibro genesis derived from chronic liver injury , retard the development of cirrhosis and notably improve liver function. Dr Celia Santos outlines a study in which Cordyceps sinensis supplementation (3 g per day for 90 day) is provided to fourteen (14) patients with alcoholic fatty livers and the reduction in their liver enzyme levels was compared to a control group who only practiced abstinence. Professor Amin Karmali provides a comparative analysis of those enzymes responsible for detoxification in four mushrooms, Corolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) and Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Dr Girao Bastos, a leading Portuguese professor in veterinarian medicine, provides three clinical cases on the application of Coriolus versicolor in: Cat with FELV, Dog with abdominal tumor and cat with fibro sarcoma in hip.

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